Via Urban Demographics:
According to the post, there are seven drivers to population growth:
- Higher incomes
- January temperature
- Proximity to ports
- Higher density level (not too high)
- Education level
- Low manufacturing employment
- Limits to housing supply
See here also:
“1. Population growth was much higher in counties with higher incomes as of 2000. Americans unsurprisingly moved to areas that deliver higher wages.
2. January temperature continues to be a strong predictor of population growth. This fact reﬂects both a natural afﬁnity for warmth, and also the tendency of many Sunbelt areas to have fewer barriers to building.
3. Population growth was faster near ports. While 19th century Americans populated the American hinterland, 21st century Americans are moving to the country’s periphery.
4. People are moving to dense areas, but not the densest areas. Despite the decline in transportation costs, people are still disproportionately moving to places that had higher density levels as of 2000, responding to the enormous productivity advantages associated with proximity.
5. The education level of a county as of 2000 strongly predicts population growth over the last decade. Again, this trend reﬂects the tendency of skilled areas to generate far higher incomes.
6. Manufacturing employment predicts lower population growth. While manufacturing has predicted urban decline for decades, the connection between manufacturing and lower levels of growth across all U.S. counties is a more recent phenomenon.
7. Limits to housing supply that come from either nature or regulation will also limit population growth. The most expensive areas have not grown all that much and the areas that have grown most demonstrably are not that expensive.”